The EU has colossal achievements to its credit in stabilising and integrating post-communist countries after 1990 by a mixture of carrots, civilisational attraction, and economic incentives and penalties.
But the Yugoslav crises of the 1990s and now the Ukraine crisis have highlighted the limitations of the EU’s security capabilities. After centuries of conflict originating in Europe, often radiating effects far beyond, the EU has sought to abolish conflict. Confronted by a rogue state that thrives on conflict, its policy toolkit looks painfully depleted.
The economic malaise of the years since the global financial crisis of 2008-9 has significantly vitiated the EU’s capacity …read more